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In order to understand the factors that impact on organizational effectiveness, the current paper will focus on the characteristics of an effective organization, elements of organizational success, elements of an effective organization, and the elements that impact on the performance of an administrator. These analyses will promote the understanding of an effective organization, and the relationship between the different elements that create it. The first section will discuss the characteristics of an effective organization, which include the communication, employee empowerment, clear mission, and adaptability.
Characteristics of an Effective Organization
According to Fredrick Taylor, effectiveness is determined by different factors including cost minimization, maximization of production, and technological excellence among others. On the other hand, Max Weber analyzed various bureaucratic elements that he argued were the solutions to the problems that were seen in the earlier administrative systems.
Communication is an essential component of an effective organization. Through manager to employee communication, the management is able to relay information regarding the mission, goals and values of the organization. In addition, there is also the employee to employee communication within the organization that assists in socialization, as well as, enabling teamwork and deliberations. There can also be manager to manager communication where they discuss top-levels issues and make decisions. Communication within the organization may be verbal, written or non-verbal. The purpose of the communication is to enable flow of information within the organization. Effective communication is a vital component of an effective organization.
It promotes creative freedom, which is essential as when an employee feels that they have the freedom to be creative, they have a feeling of accomplishment net and being valued. Such an employee feels inspired and capable of dealing with situations using unconventional approaches. When employees feel that they have some freedom to conduct their activities, they feel trusted and it motivates them to be more effective. Proper compensation is also a source of empowerment for an employee. When an employee feels that they are compensated properly based on their work, they tend to be more effective. A combination of these factors leads to an effective organization.
The mission, vision and values of an organization act as the guiding principles for the organizational goals, as well as, the goals of individual employees. Consequently, they need to be well communicated to the employees, in most organizations; there will posters within the building indicating the values, mission and vision. It is important to have the employees understand and internalize these values. In addition, for an effective organization, the mission, vision and values should align. In addition, the actions of the organizations should also align with the mission, vision and values. It is made possible through the actions of the individual employees.
Organizational adaptability is an important component of an effective organization. The corporate world is dynamic and the organization needs to be capable of adapting to changes as they emerge. Organizations should be able to notice changes in their internal and external environments and reinvent or reshape their operational model. Adaptability is also a component of competitive advantage; thus, it makes an organization effective.
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Structures Effect on Success
Organizational structure is formed from the systems, culture, management systems and employees. It has an impact on the organizational efficiency, as well as, effectiveness. According to Weber, organizations need to adopt bureaucracy in order to have effective and operational structures. Weber stated that in order for an organization to be effective, it required a fixed division of labor, hierarchy of office, rational-legal authority, rules that govern the performance, selection and appointment based on qualifications, as well as, clear career paths. Therefore, it is important for public administrators to understand the benefits and drawbacks of the organized structure, and its applicability in the public sector.
Management Practices Effect on Success
The management practices are at the core of the success or failure of an organization. It is through the decisions and the atmosphere that the management develop within the organization that the employees follow. Drucker presents the concept of making people decisions and maintains that it is the ultimate approach to organizational control. The management should make the appropriate decisions in relation to staffing, and allocating the employees to the positions that fit them best. There are three types, which include top managers, middle managers and line managers. The top managers operate at the top of the organization and their role is to plan and guide strategies. The middle managers are in charge of departments or business units, and they report to the top managers, and guide the line managers. The line managers are directly responsible for the production of goods or services. In most cases, they guide the non-supervisory employees.
Elements of an Effective Organization
The leadership of an organization is an important element in the effectiveness of an organization. The leader acts as the guide towards the attainment of the organizational goals. Norton defines leadership as the description of power relationship between a leader and a follower. In the modern organizations, it is important that the leaders apply strategic leadership, which is a process of making use of well-considered tactics to convey information on the organizational vision. System thinking is a holistic approach towards the analysis of the components of a system. Leadership should also apply single-loop vs. double-loop thinking. Single-loop thinking entails focusing on problem solving, while double-loop thinking entails more than just problem solving, as it reevaluates and reframes values, as well as, goals.
The organizational structure is important towards the effectiveness of the organization. In most organizations, there is a hierarchical structure, which places people at different ranks within the entity based on their functions. It is the concept of bureaucracy discussed by Weber. It means that a person reports to their immediate manager or supervisor, and the information flows up the structure. The same applies when information has to flow from the top management to the lower levels. The bureaucratic structure has become a central aspect of the public administration. It is applied by most entities as a guide to their operations, but they also adopt the open-door policy.
Trust is a situation where an entity feels that they can rely on another safely. In the public sector, it relates to the fostering of a culture of openness where there can be flow of information between the government and its citizens. In an organization, trust is a key element of effectiveness. All individuals within the organization need to cultivate the virtue of trust. It has to be present from the management to the low-level employees. It can be cultivated through accountability, transparency and legitimacy. When these three components are included in the operations of an organization, it gains trust from the public, as well as, internally.
Motivation of the employees is central to the functions of an organization. It is an element of effectiveness as motivated employees are effective, and it translates to the effectiveness of the organization. Motivated employees have a tendency of being loyal to the organization, and the employees enjoy work, which improves their effectiveness and productivity. Employees require the right incentives that will make them perceive their job as less tedious and it may influence their improvement. A public organization that has lowly motivated employees cannot serve the public well, and is bound to have a high employee turnover.
Elements that Affect and Administrator’s Performance
The personal attitude of an administrator impacts on their interaction with the employees, and it also affects their abilities to perform. The attitude relates to various factors including biasness, prejudice, positivity vs. negativity, and open-mindedness among others. An effective administrator should not be biased and should always operate from a neutral position. In addition, they should avoid partiality as it can impact negatively on their decision making abilities. In addition, an administrator should have an open mind in their operations as they deal with people from different backgrounds and with diverse approaches to life.
The personal values of an administrator also affect their performance. In an organization where an administrator has to deal with diverse people, they should act ethically, and understand others. Religion also plays a part as a religious person also respects other people’s religions as they interact. The personal priorities of an individual are also vital as it relates to their interaction in the organization.
A person’s behavior also impacts on their performance. For instance, a person who abuses drugs or does not have enough sleep may be easily irritable, which impacts on their interaction with other employees and members of the public. In addition, the way that an administrator communicates with other people is also essential in the operations of the organization.
In conclusion, the performance of an organization is dependent on the performance of its employees, especially the leadership. The paper covered various aspects of different topics including the characteristics of an effective organization, the elements of organizational success, the elements of an effective organization, and the elements that affect an administrator’s performance. It is evident that numerous factors play a role towards the effectiveness of an organization. For instance, the behavior of a motivated employee leads to their improved productivity. Ultimately, it improves the productivity and effectiveness of the organization. It is also vital for the management to be vigilant about industry changes and adapt accordingly.
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