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The Islamic State
The extremist group, the Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant consisting of the remaining al-Qaeda terrorists was established after the defeat in the military conflict in Iraq. In 2011, the civil war in Syria enabled the militants to seize weapons, territory, oil, relics, and trade hostages. The illegal organization took the responsibility for a series of terrorist attacks that occurred in Paris in November 2015. The current paper seeks to examine the bloody event that led to the 140 innocent deaths, as well as describe and apply such sociological concepts as the social construction, stratification, social control, crime, deviance, and power in relation to the recent terrorist attack in French capital.
Several extremist assaults took place on Friday evening in Paris on November 13, 2015. Locals and visitors heard explosions in the city’s center and the surrounding area. Shootings occurred in the concert hall “Bataclan”, where terrorists took hostages and the football stadium “The Stade de France” in a suburb of the capital. 140 people, 100 of which were killed during the concert, became the victims of these brutal attacks. The next day, officials reported about one detainee, who carried out the terrorist acts and declared about his belonging to ISIS.
After a while, the jihadist militant group the Islamic State released an official statement about its involvement in the bloody attacks in Paris. Messages were disseminated in Arabic and French through the World Wide Web. Officials seriously embraced them and started checking their origin. It was found out that the eight militants in suicide belts carried out attacks. The authors of messages claimed that the bloody assault was carried out in retaliation for insulting the Prophet Muhammad and air strikes on the group’s positions. Terrorists warned that France would remain their main target for such violent attacks. The President Francois Hollande described the events in Paris as an act of war that has to be ceased.
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At the same time, the French Council of the Islamic religion in Paris called the attack heinous, despicable and condemned it. The French authorities introduced a special plan of actions due to brutal, terrorist acts. Additional 10 thousand French soldiers were put to control and ensure the social order in Paris. Security measures, including the protection of diplomatic missions and administrative centers, were also developed. The U.S. intelligence thinks that the terrorist attacks in the French capital could arrange al-Qaida, not the Islamic State. A senior official from the agency has expressed his view by claiming that the bombings and shootings were not similar to the ISIS actions due to their complexity and coherence. The level of coordination characterizes the Al-Qaeda’s activity. Officials were forced to declare the state of emergency.
The social construction is the process of formation of social phenomena by human beings. It also represents people’s comprehension of incidents and interaction with particular objects or subjects. Some individuals accept the social construct as the natural and obvious notion despite the fact it may not reflect the reality. The concept can be applied to the Parisian attacks as it reflects the interaction of people involved in the violent assault. Not all individuals understood what happened and refused to accept the reality as the violence and aggression towards the peaceful nation, and innocent residents are unacceptable in the modern and democratic world.
The social stratification is the specific division of the society into layers by combining a variety of positions and the prevailing inequality leading to the formation of the hierarchy. The concept can be applied to the dramatic events as the social status of the innocent locals, visitors and terrorists suffered from and involved in the attacks respectively differed. Unfortunately, French became victims due to the reckless actions of authorities.
The social control is the mechanism of regulation of the relations between the individual and the society. The main aim is to strengthen the order and reach the stability in the communities. These include the norms, regulations, and sanctions. The importance of control cannot be underestimated, particularly in the light of the recent bloody event in Paris. Therefore, in order to prevent the similar dramatic incidents in the future, officials have to develop an adequate strategy designed to reaching stability and strengthening the order in the society.
Crime is the socially dangerous act as a result of which a perpetrator faces criminal responsibility through the application of adequate, legal measures by the competent authorities. Everyone can identify the criminal act as formal and substantive depending on the nature of the offense. The concept can be applied to the Parisian event as the terrorist attack conducted against the civilian population is a severe crime, for which perpetrators must be held accountable.
Deviance is the departure from the widely accepted standards of the social behavior. In this case, conformity to the norms is absent. While deviant acts can be regarded as normal in one society, they may break rules and laws in another one. From the sociological perspective, deviance violates the social norms. Moreover, it ranges from minor to major violations. The bloody event in Paris is an example of deviance as the violent terrorist attack violates and breaks norms and rules, and, therefore, every democratic and peaceful country fights against it.
The power is the ability of some people to impose their will, influence the activities and behavior of other individuals, even in spite of their resistance. Its nature does not depend on the given opportunities. The power can focus on the aspects such as democracy, authoritarianism, honesty, dishonesty, violence, revenge, deceit, provocation, extortion, incentives, and promises. The concept is also applied to the Parisian events as the terrorist leaders recruit ordinary people, influence their behavior, and force them to conduct illegal and deadly actions putting own lives and lives of people around in danger.
The current paper has deeply examined the deadliest terrorist attack in the French capital, as a result of which over one hundred people were killed. The jihadist militant group, the Islamic State was involved in the bloody event considering it the revenge for Syria. Moreover, six sociological concepts such as the social construction, stratification, social control, crime, deviance, and power were described and applied to the tragic assault in the European country.
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