Category: Psychology

Introduction

This paper is about psychological approaches that are used to solve various psychological problems. The first part is about available heuristics which is used to take advantage of peoples thinking after they are affected by a present issue. Another part about how the children’s language errors can be solved. Behaviour of an individual also has psychological concepts which can better explain them and their way out. This paper mostly discusses most elements that deal with behaviour of individuals.

How to use availability heuristic to boost sales of lottery

In the availability heuristic is a situation where the mind thinks in line with the recent happenings. When one tries to make decisions, most of the decisions made will be in line with the recent happenings that are related with the problem being solved. In this case people are always blinded and hence cannot think beyond what the mind has already received (Aronson et al, 2003).

As a state lottery commissioner I will put more advertisements on the media like televisions, radios, internet and others. These advertisements will majorly dwell in many people winning the lottery on a daily basis. The winners will be given chance to encourage others as a way of convincing that the task is easy. Such advertisements will make people to start thinking positively towards the buying of lottery cards. They will stop to make any decisions further but to go and buy the lottery. This makes them be easily persuaded in the line of buying lottery. This will increase the sales of the lottery cards (Aronson et al, 2003).

Another way of encouraging people is on the basis of giving a token. People are told to buy a lottery. There are stickers at the back of the ticked covering prices name. Depending on what you find written you will be given the price. When advertising you make sure you mention things like TV, music systems and the other variety of beautiful things. In real sense the prices that are behind are very cheap objects like pencils, pens etc. when individuals hear of such things, they will stop thinking any further and decide to buy the tickets. If they get a smaller token, they are encouraged to buy more and more for them to get big prices like TV and music systems. This will rapidly increase the rates of the selling (Aronson et al, 2003)..

Why is my tactic fair or unfair to customers?

The first tactic is fair enough. The individuals are only convinced to join the game of winning the lottery. They are persuaded and come for buying. They then participate of which if they win they are awarded with presents. If they lose then they walk empty handed but this is after buying the lottery cards. The second tactic is unfair to the customers. I as a commissioner know very well that the promised big prices do not exist. My action is just meant to improve the rate of card buying. This is like cheating the customers who then try every now and then to purchase more in order to win big. This action to me is very unfair to customers (Chomsky, 1962).

Why behaviorists have problems in explaining grammatical error  

Behaviorists are having problem in explaining incorrect grammatical construction as they believe that behaviour is as a result of reinforcement. They have a belief that sentences are part of a behaviour chain. The child is meant to learn language after a positive reinforcement and yet Tony is having grammatical errors in his sentences. According to Naomi Chomsky (1959), Skinner made it clear that reinforcement is necessary condition for language learning and for the continued availability of linguistic responses in the adult. In this case there is a reinforcement which is the adult (tonny’s mother) but still he has grammatical error. This cannot easily be explained by skinner and other behaviorists. Skinner’s theories put stress to the fact that children learn language from other. Some grammatical errors cannot be linked to this fact at all. This is because even if the person with the child speaks error free sentences, the child says the opposite (Chomsky, 1962).

The theory to be used instead of behaviorism

Chomsky’s Inborn Universal Grammar theory explains the grammatical error in Tonny’s sentence. She says that language is inborn and develops as the child grows. Language is a skill and develops on its own without being influenced by anybody or anything. It elaborates how the children learn language quickly. Children are born with innate ability to help them to construct sentences once they have the vocabulary (Chomsky, 1962).

The answer to the problem

The answers to this problem of Tonney can be solved by Chomsky. Tony is a child born with innate ability to acquire language. According to Chomsky in his theory, there is learning devices with which vary depending on the language being learnt. It has constraints to the child when it comes to some languages. These constraints are known as “Universal Grammar”. The rate that children learn language is the same worldwide and is rapid. The errors in the grammar can be a result of lack of motivation. The children should be motivated to allow them improve their language as time goes by (Aronson et al, 2003).

Weaknesses of Latisha

She is the type that pushes blames on forces beyond her control. She blames Germans for being of twisted personalities. Instead of blaming Hitler who is said to have ordered German. She is making attributions that are external rather than the internal ones. She should have said Hitler to be cruel, sadistic and of abnormal twisted personality (Leon et al, 1967).

The Germany as a whole cannot have people of the same personalities and characters. Latisha is impulsive and has fallacy statements. These statements that Adolf Hitler ordered the Germans to slaughter all Jews and others are not the truth. She did not think even a single bit over the questions. One cannot prove of any persons characters unless you know the truth. The teacher wanted to test his reactions on some matters and that is exactly what she did.

Alternative explanation

The alternative answers should have been that Adolf Hitler never commanded any Germans to kill Jews systematically. When they wanted to claim more land for Germany after the World War I, they did it minus having even a single shot. This was because the rest of the communities never wanted shed any more blood. If the Germans had to comply with him, then it is because they were working under order from above. The Germans would have then be considered to be obedient in their doings (Chomsky, 1962).

Maslow and Dostoyevsky’s statements

Food is a basic need to an individual that one cannot survive without. The level of deficiency of needs depends on the hierarchy of needs. The food and water are some of the components in the lowest elements of the lowest level of the hierarchy of needs. This means that they are to be satisfied first before any other is satisfied (Chomsky, 1962).

Apart from being the first in the hierarchy of needs, food is essential for life. One cannot love or have self esteem when biological needs like food have not been satisfied. The person has to support life first is when he or she can be in a position to do other things like loving. With energy and perfection of life, individual I guaranteed of success in the rest of the work. Without good nutrition, general growth and development is interfered with (Leon et al, 1967).

Dostoyevsky’s statement is supported within the Maslow’s hierarchy of needs. This is where an individual when working for food, he or she also put in mind to better his life and expand on his ideas. When the first element of the hierarchy of being has been successfully completed, an individual will crave to climb up the later. This is where an individual starts having ideas and improves the quality of his or her life (Leon et al, 1967).

Explanation of Andy’s behaviour

Psychoanalytically, his Id is acting on the pleasure principles. This is as a result of earlier happenings during her child hood. This usually happen when one is trying to cover up for mishandlings or mistreatments done to him or her by others individuals. The girls are trying to revenge it minus even knowing what she is doing. At this period an individual acts unconsciously and this is a way of making her get relieved (Leon et al, 1967).

Humanistically, Andy has not attained the need for belongingness as well as self-esteem. His feelings and reaction is as a result of lack of the parental love and affection. The child always feels so much rejected and lack of belongingness. If she had enough care, acceptance and empathy from the parents or guardians, the behaviour could have been different (Leon et al, 1967).

Social-cognitive explains the fact that the environment influences the child’s future behaviour.  Andy’s behaviour is shaped by those who surrounded her during her child hood. Even those who surround her up to date may be of the same behaviour. A child is always and eagers whatever happen in his or her environment. So these are traits which a child copies from those who are near him or her. So the surrounding or society, family or even friends made her have such feelings and attitudes (Leon et al, 1967).

Similarities between a behavior therapist and a psychoanalytic therapist’s methods

Both the behaviour therapist and the psychoanalytic therapists dwell on behaviors of an individual. They both have the belief that behaviour can be changed. The behaviors to be changed are believed to be unhealthy and destructive. These dirty behaviors are learned and copied from other people. They can as well be done away with. They both aim at modifying behaviour from bad to good. They are highly confidential and private. There must be a conversation between the therapist and the affected person (Leon et al, 1967).

Differences between a behavior therapist and a psychoanalytic therapist’s methods

As opposed to the behaviour, psychoanalytic deals with understanding the functioning of the brain. This involves the understanding all the stages of growth and development of an individual. The psychoanalytic therapist will dwell on the role played by emotion in the illness or health of an individual (Aronson et al, 2003).

As opposed to psychoanalytic therapist, the behavior therapist also uses systematic desensitization. This is where people are exposed to fearful object bit by bit. The person is exposed to whatever he or she fears until they get over the fear. Mean while the training of relaxation is also practiced to the person. The person finally gets relaxed and cannot fear anymore of that thing. The fear and anxiety is done away with for good (Aronson et al, 2003).

Conclusion

From this paper, we can deduce that most life experiences and mishaps of life. Various concepts explain why some issues do occur in our lives. Mostly it solves problems to do with health and growth of an individual. Different and various concepts of psychology are applied in different areas depending on the problem at hand. 

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