Category: Research

Basic Information on Risks and Hazards

The state of Connecticut has been a victim of numerous environmental risks and hazards, resulting from human activities, natural calamities, or technological advancements. In rare cases, the environmental risks and hazards occur due to human adversaries to the environment. Whichever the case is, the environmental risks and hazards in the state of Connecticut will have a different likelihood of occurrence. Furthermore, they will cause harm in a various level of severity.

However, there is a possibility that climate change will be more severe despite being less likely to occur. It is a risk that bears the responsibility of human and technological problems because technological advancement has led to the industrialization of Connecticut resulting in more harmful emissions into the atmosphere. Consequently, a high concentration of greenhouse gasses in the atmosphere lead to adverse changes in the climatic conditions.

Second, the rise in sea level will depend on the global warming and is less likely to occur. It will cause a less severe impact on the environment and the inhabitants of the state of Connecticut. It is a very delicate risk to the environment since the rise in sea level will lead to the possibility of the change in economic activities along the coastline of Connecticut State.

Next, coastal flooding is another human inflicted significant risk in the state of Connecticut, resulting from poor drainage and management of the coastline. Besides, improper development of infrastructure along the coast may also contribute to the hazard’s occurrence. Connecticut State has faced some risks related to coastline flooding, leading to massive floods registered in the coastlines.

Fourth, the melting of glaciers of the state of Connecticut is also a significant environmental risk and hazard because melted glaciers cause negative effects on the ocean and estuarine life. It means that the amount of water in the water bodies will keep on rising beyond the level the water body may carry. Precipitation may increase to unacceptable levels leading to a critical condition in the state of Connecticut. It is a naturally induced risk and bears the responsibility of the natural phenomenon in the atmosphere.

Finally, the population trends of the Connecticut State have been increasing for a long time posing a major challenge for the state. The Connecticut State has experienced an upsurge in population growth over the past few years. Furthermore, the population of the Connecticut State grows at a faster rate than the authorities of the state can manage, which results in the risk of overstretched social amenities. Moreover, the increasing population trends have continued to put pressure on the underdeveloped physical facilities and infrastructure of the Connecticut State.

Essential Components of Emergency Conditions and Scenarios That Would Occur 

An emergency needs an immediate response from the unified command to help restore the state of normalcy. However, the emergency response to each of the five risks and hazards will depend on the condition in which the risk has struck. Besides the scenario that presents itself at the time of the risk mitigation, it will be necessary to determine the best ways the unified command can tackle the risk. Thus, the unified command will use the best alternative to mitigate the risks and hazards. However, the overall objective of the mitigation and intervention process is to ensure that the damage caused is contained and prevented from occurring again.

In the case of climate change, the essential components of emergency conditions will depend on the reasons for its occurrence. The scenario may show that human activities such as deforestation, industrialization, construction, and transport are the main contributors to the climate change due to their massive emission of greenhouse gasses to the atmosphere. Then, the Connecticut State will have to implement a measure that regulates such sectors. The overall objective that the unified command should use will focus on reducing emission of greenhouse gasses into the atmosphere. It will be possible through the implementation of regulations that control the industries mentioned above. Besides, the unified command may choose the objective of making all these industries take responsibility for their emissions.

The risk of a rise in sea level has a full range of emergency conditions that may arise. However, the essential components of emergency will be subject to the cause of the rise in sea level. As the number of precipitation increases, so does the level of the sea. It means that the emergency that is likely to be experienced because of the rise in sea level is the increase in precipitation beyond the average level. Furthermore, there will be the destruction of the marine ecosystem, coastlines, as well as other environmental problems at the coast. In such a scenario, the unified command should employ the strategy aimed at reducing the sea level to its normal level. They can achieve this goal through reduced dumping into the sea, reduced precipitation, and reduced emissions into the atmospheres. The unified command of the state of Connecticut should also take the activities of the residents into consideration and give priority to those that do not result in increased sea level.

Similarly, it will be significant for the unified command to implement an effective strategy that will help curb coastal flooding in its coastlines. In this regard, it is important to note that the primary components of emergency conditions will be the displacement of people, destruction of structures and physical facilities, and loss of property. Besides, the coastal flooding will lead to the loss of the aesthetic beauty of the coastline of the state of Connecticut. The scenario that comes out of this is the possibility of the floods, changing the usability, hence, economic conditions of the coastlines. To mitigate the risk of coastal flooding, it will be significant to ensure that the unified command of the state of Connecticut build trenches, open up drainage and control development along its coastlines. The overall objective is to reduce the occurrence of coastal floods in the future and reduce the adverse effects of such waves. 

Melting of the glacier may a very challenging hazard to the state of Connecticut because it might result from natural forces that may not be under control. However, the essential component of the emergency condition related to melting of the glacier may provide an alternative way of its controlling. The scenario created by this risk is a reduction of the glacier and increase in the flow of water. In this regard, the unified command will pay much attention to the human activities that cause global warming, such as deforestation and use of fossil and fuels. Moreover, the unified command will focus on reducing the overall emission of greenhouse gasses into the atmosphere.

In case of the population increase, the primary components of emergency conditions will be a lack of enough social amenities to cater for the increasing population. Besides, there will be overcrowding and increased informal settlement. The scenario portrayed in such a case presents a state with a higher number of inhabitants that it can support. Furthermore, it will be much difficult for the state of Connecticut to provide all the fundamental food, health care, and education to its residents. An unfortunate scenario will be a lack of security as overcrowding will lead to informal settlements, thus increasing the rate of crime. The primary objective of the unified command will be to control the population growth. In case the above fundamental objectives are properly implemented, it will be easy for the state of Connecticut to deal with the risk of population increase.

The Risks Associated with Hazards That Might Happen in the Connecticut State

There is no formula that the risk facing the Connecticut State will strike. Each risk will strike at the different time of the year and cause the various levels of destruction. In rare cases, Connecticut will remain a safe place to stay without any of the five risks experienced. However, it is easy for the five risks to occur at the same time, thus causing negative effects. During the rainy season, it is possible for the coastal flooding to take place. Thus, it will be important to give providence to coastal flooding during rainy season.

Besides, the upsurge in population does not depend on any formula but will continue to increase subject to the demographic characteristics of the population. Therefore, as long as the population productivity exists in a favorable proportion, it is possible that the population will continue to rise. Therefore, the productivity of the population and the demographic characteristics will play a key role in contributing to a hazard of population upsurge.

Climate change, on the other hand, will take a long time to occur, causing adverse effects in the end. It does not depend on any season and may strike randomly at any given time. However, the human activities greatly influence the occurrence of climate change making it a human inflicted hazard. In addition, climate change will occur after the unsustainable human activities and result in severe impacts.

The melting of the glaciers will only be experienced only during summer when temperatures are high; therefore, it is less likely to occur. 

Finally, the rise in sea level is a continuous risk that will be experienced the moment the amount of water exceeds the capacity of the ocean. It will result in the increase in the level of water in the oceans, leading to a rise in the level of the sea. It may occur at any time of the year although rarely as compared to other four risks mentioned. Besides, it is subject to high tides but does not occur during the low tide seasons.

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Detailed Account Of Hazards And Risks That Have Completely Been Identified

Individual Threats and Hazards and Their Proximity

Different risks and hazards that face the state of Connecticut already mentioned include the rise in sea level, melting of the glacier, climate change, coastal flooding, and overpopulation. These hazards will lead to the possibility of health hazards facing the residents of the state of Connecticut. Moreover, individual threats like animal wastes, smog, emissions from industries, lead hazards, dumping waste, toxic chemicals, land contaminants, and lack of clean water will pose a significant challenge to Connecticut. 

The proximity of these risks varies depending on the category. For instance, coastal flooding and melting of glaciers are geological risks; thus, they are of far proximity from the environment. In addition, they only occur under specific conditions. They are rare but when they occur, they cause a significant negative effect to the state of Connecticut. Additionally, these two threats are similar. On the other hand, the rise in sea level, overpopulation, and climate change are very frequent and are in proximity to the physical environment. These threats also have adverse effects on the environment.

Explanation of the Stages of Development of the Risks and Hazards Identified

The first stage of development of the risks and hazards identified above is the initial phase where all the necessary information regarding the hazards is gathered. During this process, the risks are evaluated in three different stages to ensure that they are brought into control. The first phase of development is the identification of the cause of the hazard followed by a careful study of the hazard to determine what exactly pertains to it. The next stage will be a recommendation of possible mitigation measures that will help reduce the negative effects of the hazard. The final stage will be the implementation of the recommendation to bring the hazard into control.

The Impacts of the Noted Hazards and Threats, and the Manner of Development

The consequences of the hazards discussed above are adverse and will lead to several miserable conditions. Coastal flooding will result in loss of lives, damage to property, and even destruction of the state structure. Melting of glaciers will cause health concerns. In addition, flooding will result in loss of property and displacement of people. Similarly, population upsurge will lead to increased crime rates and overstretch necessary amenities. The magnitude of the impact of these hazards will be experienced not only in the state of Connecticut but also in the neighboring states. Furthermore, it is important to note that some hazards will cause more severe impacts than others will. For instance, the rise in sea level and climate change may lead to permanent damage and loss of property while coastal flooding and melting of the glacier may not cause severe damages. Besides, the impacts of flooding and melting of glaciers are permanent as compared to the reversible effects of pollution and overcrowding.

Assessment of the risks associates of the threats that would have significant impacts on the state of Connecticut

The Proximity of the Risks Identified

The risks identified above have proximity to the human beings indicated by the fact that all the hazards mentioned have a close relationship with the daily life of people. Moreover, the main impact of the hazards is on the quality and safety of life. There is no distinction between the hazards and the impacts caused by the environment. In most cases, the hazard bears a proximity to the impact on the environment making it undivided. Of great importance is the proximity to loss and damage caused to the environment by the hazards. Climate change, coastal flooding, and melting of the glacier have proximity to natural calamities, which affect the residents of the state of Connecticut. On the other hand, the rise in sea level and pollution upsurge have proximity to human activities.

Overall operational priorities

The Priorities That Should Be Considered In Cases of Risks and Hazards

During the emergency events, the priority needs to be set up to mitigate the environmental risks and hazards. Thereafter, the clear mechanism must be used to identify the hazards that need more urgent attention than the others do. Those hazards and risks that cause adverse impacts that are irreversible must be given priority, for instance, the rise in sea level and coastal flooding. Similarly, those hazards that can be easily averted like population upsurge; climate change and melting of glaciers will be attended to at a later stage. The magnitude of the hazard together with the time of occurrence must also be given priority while dealing with them. Thus, choosing the hazards to prevent first depends on their order of priority, which will help come up with an effective means of mitigating the adverse effects.

Comparison and Contrast between the Different Risks and Hazards 

Connecticut faces some risks that pose a danger to its residents. However, these risks have both similarities and differences. The resemblance between the hazards and risks in Connecticut is that all of them cause a negative effect on the residents. Besides, all hazards are controllable through the means implemented beforehand, which ensure that the potential impacts are reduced. In addition, all risks and hazards are a major challenge to the state of Connecticut. On the contrary, the risks and hazards that may occur in Connecticut have numerous differences. First, some are naturally induced like melting glaciers and coastal floods while others are human induced like the rise in sea level, climate change, and population upsurge. Besides, other hazards and risks may take place due to technological advancements. Another difference between the hazards in Connecticut is that they occur at a different time and in various geographical locations.

An Exclusive Insight into the Manner in Which the Hazards Occur

The manner in which the hazards occur vary depending on the kind of hazard experienced. Coastal flooding will result from a natural process within the earth’s surface creating a destabilized ground surface. The glacier will be emitted from the mountains to the ground surface. Similarly, groundwater will fill up the drainage and waterways, hence resulting in coastal flooding water. Climate change will result from human activities while the rise in sea level may be a consequence of animals and human beings’ doings.

Goals And Objectives Of The Identified Operational Priorities

The Manner of Developing Goals and Objectives of the Identified Operational Priorities

Despite having set goals and objectives for each of the five operational priorities identified above, the common aim will be to ensure that the risks and hazards are mitigated with a little damage caused. In case of coastal flooding, the goal and objective of the identified operational priority will be to reduce flooding by opening up the drainage and proper infrastructural planning.

For the sake of population upsurge, the goals and objective will be to reduce the birth rate and the possible number of children per family. It will be achieved through encouraging family planning and better living standard for the residents. By doing so, the Connecticut State will be in a position to implement the identified operational priority for population upsurge.

The operational priorities for preventing the rise in sea level should look forward to ensuring that the hazards cause no further damage. It will be achieved through a public campaign policy against unsustainable human activities that lead to the rise in sea level. Besides, the Connecticut State will have to check and control the amount of water being remitted into the Indian Ocean. 

Furthermore, the operational priorities for melting glaciers will include the prevention of the occurrence of glacial melt from the ice caps through the control of the global temperature of the Connecticut State. Thus, the identified operational priorities will aim at creating a permanent ice cap that is not susceptible to melting.

Similarly, the operational priorities identified for climate change will have the goal of reducing the case of a change in climatic conditions of the Connecticut State. This purpose will be achieved through a carefully planned objective of keeping the climatic conditions of Connecticut at a controllable level at an early stage.

General Course Of Actions

General Course of Actions for Goals and Objectives

The general course of action for reducing population upsurge is a massive family planning campaign at the local level. Besides, the Connecticut State will be charged with the responsibility of ensuring that actions are taken to control the number of children per family at the point of marriage. Such a policy will help realize the objectives of reducing the risk of population upsurge.

The manner of development the goals of controlling coastal floods will depend on the level of the risk and hazard. It will be prudent to get the community involved in opening up the drainage systems to avoid any flood. Besides, the Connecticut State must put in place policies that regulate the development of structures within its territories.

 For any risk that is at an advanced stage like the rise in sea level, the actions will begin from the identification stage to the implementation of the recommendations. It will involve initiating sustainable lifestyles that go hand in hand with the development requirements of the Connecticut State. Moreover, the action plan will involve incorporating the industry and education sector into the campaign against factors causing the rise in sea level.

However, in case the risk and hazard become an emergency, such as climate change, the authorities should take an immediate action. In this case, the manner of development of actions for achieving the goals and objective will have to forge the initial stages of action. Thus, the action will begin at the implementation of the mitigation measure.

The similar action plan will be implemented to prevent the glacier from melting from the ice caps. This action plan will involve the use of properly implemented industrialization and transport means that do not contribute towards global warming. The result will be reduced cases of glacial melting.

The Recourses Required As Well As the Manner They Would Be Obtained

The resources required will be obtained from the emergency response unit of the state of Connecticut. These resources will range from survey instrument, data analysis instruments, and monitoring. However, there will be additional requirements for human resources with experts in each specific field affected by the hazard or risk. 

Intelligence and Information Needs in the Entire Process

Intelligence and information will play a critical role in the success of the mitigation of the risks and hazards. Thus, the meteorological and research institutions of the state of Connecticut will be responsible to provide such information, including environmental and geological data with respect to the delicate areas.

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